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Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting - an endocrine society clinical practice guideline
Hyperglycemia is a common, serious, and costly health care problem in hospitalized patients. Observational and randomized controlled studies indicate that improvement in glycemic control results in lower rates of hospital complications in general medicine and surgery patients. Implementing a standardized sc insulin order set promoting the use of scheduled basal and nutritional insulin therapy is a key intervention in the inpatient management of diabetes. We provide recommendations for practical, achievable, and safe glycemic targets and describe protocols, procedures, and system improvements required to facilitate the achievement of glycemic goals in patients with hyperglycemia and diabetes admitted in non-critical care settings.
European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the GuidelineWorking Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up.
Acromegaly: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline
This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force reviewed primary evidence and commissioned two additional systematic reviews.
Using an evidence-based approach, this acromegaly guideline addresses important clinical issues regarding the evaluation and management of acromegaly, including the appropriate biochemical assessment, a therapeutic algorithm, including use of medical monotherapy or combination therapy, and management during pregnancy.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline
Objective: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency.
Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration in connection with this review.