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Update from the 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Thyroid Tumors: A Standardized Diagnostic Approach
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification of thyroid neoplasms released in 2022 includes newly recognized tumor types, subtypes, and a grading system. Follicular cell-derived neoplasms are categorized into three families (classes): benign tumors, low-risk neoplasms, and malignant neoplasms. The terms “follicular nodular disease” and “differentiated high-grade thyroid carcinoma” are introduced to account for multifocal hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinomas with high-grade features, respectively. The term “Hürthle cells” is replaced with “oncocytic cells.” Invasive encapsulated follicular and cribriform morular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are now redefined as distinct tumor types, given their different genetic alterations and clinicopathologic characteristics from other PTC subtypes. The term “variant” to describe a subclass of tumor has been replaced with the term “subtype.” Instead, the term “variant” is reserved to describe genetic alterations. A histologic grading system based on the mitotic count, necrosis, and/or the Ki67 index is used to identify high-grade follicular-cell derived carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas. The 2022 WHO classification introduces the following new categories: “salivary gland-type carcinomas of the thyroid” and “thyroid tumors of uncertain histogenesis.” This review summarizes the major changes in the 2022 WHO classification and their clinical relevance.
American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline: Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan - 2022 Update
The objective of this clinical practice guideline is to provide updated and new evidence-based recommendations for the comprehensive care of persons with diabetes mellitus to clinicians, diabetescare teams, other health care professionals and stakeholders, and individuals with diabetes and their caregivers.
Diabetes Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)
People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for kidney failure, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and premature mortality. Recent clinical trials support new approaches to treat diabetes and CKD. The 2022 American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes Management in Chronic Kidney Disease each provide evidence-based recommendations for management. A joint group of ADA and KDIGO representatives reviewed and developed a series of consensus statements to guide clinical care from the ADA and KDIGO guidelines. The published guidelines are aligned in the areas of CKD screening and diagnosis, glycemia monitoring, lifestyle therapies, treatment goals, and pharmacologic management. Recommendations include comprehensive care in which pharmacotherapy that is proven to improve kidney and cardiovascular outcomes is layered on a foundation of healthy lifestyle. Consensus statements provide specific guidance on use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, metformin, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, and a nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. These areas of consensus provide clear direction for implementation of care to improve clinical outcomes of people with diabetes and CKD.
Automated Insulin Delivery: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations. A Consensus Report of the Joint Diabetes Technology Working Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association
A technological solution for the management of diabetes in people who require intensive insulin therapy has been sought for decades. The last 10 years have seen substantial growth in devices that can be integrated into clinical care. Driven by the availability of reliable systems for continuous glucose monitoring, we have entered an era in which insulin delivery through insulin pumps can be modulated based on sensor glucose data. Over the past few years, regulatory approval of the first automated insulin delivery (AID) systems has been granted, and these systems have been adopted into clinical care. Additionally, a community of people living with type 1 diabetes has created its own systems using a do-it-yourself approach by using products commercialized for independent use. With several AID systems in development, some of which are anticipated to be granted regulatory approval in the near future, the joint Diabetes Technology Working Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association has created this consensus report. We provide a review of the current landscape of AID systems, with a particular focus on their safety. We conclude with a series of recommended targeted actions. This is the fourth in a series of reports issued by this working group. The working group was jointly commissioned by the executives of both organizations to write the first statement on insulin pumps, which was published in 2015. The original authoring group was comprised by three nominated members of the American Diabetes Association and three nominated members of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Additional authors have been added to the group to increase diversity and range of expertise. Each organization has provided a similar internal review process for each manuscript prior to submission for editorial review by the two journals. Harmonization of editorial and substantial modifications has occurred at both levels. The members of the group have selected the subject of each statement and submitted the selection to both organizations for confirmation.
The 2017 Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology
The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) established a standardized, category-based reporting system for thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. The 2017 revision reaffirms that every thyroid FNA report should begin with one of six diagnostic categories, the names of which remain unchanged since they were first introduced: (i) nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory; (ii) benign; (iii) atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS); (iv) follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm; (v) suspicious for malignancy; and (vi) malignant. There is a choice of two different names for some of the categories. A laboratory should choose the one it prefers and use it exclusively for that category. Synonymous terms (e.g., AUS and FLUS) should not be used to denote two distinct interpretations. Each category has an implied cancer risk that ranges from 0% to 3% for the ‘‘benign’’ category to virtually 100% for the ‘‘malignant’’ category, and, in the 2017 revision, the malignancy risks have been updated based on new (post 2010) data. As a function of their risk associations, each category is linked to updated, evidence-based clinical management recommendations. The recent reclassification of some thyroid neoplasms as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) has im- plications for the risk of malignancy, and this is accounted for with regard to diagnostic criteria and optional notes. Such notes can be useful in helping guide surgical management.
Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022 Abridged for Primary Care Providers
The American Diabetes Association’s (ADA’s) StandardsofMedicalCareinDiabetes(the Standards) is updated and published annually in a supplement to the January issue of DiabetesCare. The Standards are developed by the ADA’s multidisciplinary Professional Practice Com- mittee, which comprises expert diabetes health care professionals. The Standards include the most current evidence-based recommendations for diagnosing and treating adults and children with all forms of diabetes. ADA’s grading system uses A, B, C, or E to show the evidence level that supports each recommendation. A—Clear evidence from well-conducted, generaliz- able randomized controlled trials that are ade- quately powered B—Supportive evidence from well-conducted cohort studies C—Supportive evidence from poorly controlled or uncontrolled studies E—Expert consensus or clinical experience This is an abridged version of the current Standards of Care containing the evidence-based recommendations most pertinent to primary care. The recommendations, tables, and figures included here retain the same num- bering used in the complete Standards. All of the rec- ommendations included here are substantively the same as in the complete Standards. The abridged ver- sion does not include references. The complete 2022 Standards of Care, including all supporting references, is available at professional.diabetes.org/standards.
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